Monday, March 23, 2020

Electronic Medical Records

The cost of healthcare is a serious concern for many governments. The health burden seems to be on the rise despite advances in medical technologies. There are newer disease strains, increased virulence of some diseases, issues like drug resistance, and increased people mobility increasing the rate of spread of diseases.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Electronic Medical Records specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is not to say that healthcare has not improved. Rather, it is the recognition that while there is improvement in healthcare standards, the cost is also on the increase. Cost management measure in healthcare includes expanding access to medical insurance such as Medicare and Medicaid. The long-term efficacy of public healthcare systems depends on increasing efficiency to keep the cost of healthcare affordable. IT is proving useful as a means of increasing efficiencies in most industries. IT is already in use in health facilities. In conventional health facilities, IT finds use in areas such as billing, procurement, pharmaceutical services, and patient registration. However, most conventional IT systems in Health institutions are not integrated. Even where integration exists, usually its aim is to streamline the business process. As such, there was a move to spread the benefits of IT in the management of health information retrieved from patients. This brought about the concept of Electronic Medical Records (EMR). The role of EMR is to make patient information available across the medical value chain to increase the efficiency of medical care. The term Electronic Health Record (EHR) sometimes replaces EMR in literature. Therefore, this paper uses them interchangeably. While EMR refers to the whole system comprising the hardware, software and the medical information in it, the information relating to a specific patient comprises the Personal Health Information (PHI) component of th e system. The law protects PHI to deter breaches of patient privacy by parties with access to the information. Structure of the Paper The goal of this paper is to explore the contemporary issues surrounding the implementation of an EMR system. Specifically, the paper examines the stakeholders in the EMR system and their impact on the system. Secondly, the paper looks at the benefits associated with the use of an EMR system.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the paper examines some of the challenges and controversies EMR systems present. There is a brief look at the legal framework covering the use of EMR systems in America under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009. This discussion gives way to a look at the future of EMR. Stakeholders in th e EMR System It takes the effort and cooperation of a number of stakeholders to ensure the proper operation of the EMR system. As an IT-based platform, EMR relies on the expertise of IT professionals to operate. This category of stakeholders includes software designers, software vendors, IT administrators, and Hardware suppliers. Their role is to avail and manage the IT infrastructure on which the system operates. There are several classes of stakeholder under each category. For instance, there are commercial software developers and open source developers. The second category of stakeholders is those in the medical fraternity. They include the medical institutions using the EMR system. They also include the medical professionals who feed information into the system, or access the available information in order to provide care for the patients in the system. In addition, there are support professionals such as laboratory technicians, pharmacists, radiographers and others who provide specialized services in the medical institutions. This category of stakeholder represents the primary users of EMR systems and it is responsible for entering data into the EMR system. Patients form a very important category of stakeholders. They are the primary beneficiaries of the systems. They are also the source of information stored in the EMR systems. Apart from the benefits, patients stand to suffer from risks associated with the operations of the EMR such as wrong records leading to erroneous diagnosis, or breach of their privacy based on wrongful use of the information help in the EMR systems. Patients stand to suffer the most, or benefit the most from EMR systems. Their main concern is the privacy of the information they provide. This is the basis of the HIPAA and HITECH laws.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Electronic Medical Records specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other stakeholders include regulator s such as health agencies, and researchers who use aggregated information from the EMR to improve the services offered. Researchers who take an interest in EMR systems come from the IT industry and those involved in epidemiology and public health. The federal government also forms part of this group of stakeholders considering it creates the rules that all other players live by. Insurance companies also are important stakeholders in the EMR industry because the operation of the industry affects their businesses. These stakeholders have legitimate claims to access data stored in the EMR systems. Justification of EMR Systems The justification for using EMR revolves around the efficiency of these systems and potential uses of electronic records as compared to paper records. Paper records still feature prominently in medical institutions as the means for gathering patient data. The transition to EMR is still underway, with a legal deadline set at 2015. Paper records are very easy and co nvenient to handle during data entry. However, information storage and retrieval of paper-based systems is very expensive and inefficient. Paper records create serious logistical challenges that compromise the quality of healthcare. The difficulties of information sharing between institutions make paper records almost useless when it comes to determining a patient’s medical history. EMR on the other hand makes storage and retrieval easy, and reduces duplication of effort. From the level of providing national healthcare, EMR promises to help cut the overall cost associated with health records. By using IT based systems, the need for warehouses to hold patient records disappears. Instead, medical institutions can use general IT silos, constructed for the storage and retrieval of digital information. The health facility does not need to build its own data warehouse because of the availability of space in commercial data warehouses at competitive rates. In addition to these, the availability of information about a patient from multiple points eliminates the need for duplicate tests because each medical caregiver can refer to test results and treatment history indicated in the PHR of a patient. These records are available with the EMR infrastructure. EMR also assists in increasing the efficiency of the entire healthcare value chain. Within the health facilities, the trend is to integrate the EMR system in use with the business systems such as medical supply order processing systems, and billing systems to increase the efficiency of the medical value chain.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, financiers such as insurance companies, can access better information regarding healthcare. This makes it possible for them to offer competitive premium rates based on the data. This is simply another benefit to the medical care value chain. All the stakeholders experience certain advantages derived from the benefits of EMR. Benefits of EMR Apart from the fundamental justification of EMR, there is a need to explore the specific benefits of the EMR systems in more detail. This section discusses the benefits of the EMR to various stakeholders. Patients Patients are the primary beneficiaries of EMR. Most of the advantages stemming from the use of EMR lead to better care for patients. The first advantage that patients get from EMR is that they have more control over their medical information. By using PHR access portals, a patient can add supplementary information to their health record thereby making a permanent entry to the EMR. This control assures the patient that a physic ian taking care of him or her has access to all the important information. EMR systems trace the source of information in it. This enables physicians and other medical professionals to separate information provided by medical professionals, from that given by the patient. The second benefit patients derive from EMR is that they are at a lower risk of wrong diagnosis. This means that a patient can get accurate treatment of ailments simply because the caregiver has access to the patient’s full medical history. Better care means that the patient can recover faster and resume a productive life quicker. The costs of care also diminish because a patient does not have to spend their health cover on repeat tests after moving from one jurisdiction to another. All healthcare providers with access to the EMR have the same record to work from regarding a specific patient. There is no need to create duplicate files about the same patient. EMR also provides physicians and other healthcare providers with several benefits. First, post-entry data management tasks reduce dramatically for the medical professionals. There is no need to spend time classifying paper records and sending them to warehouses. In addition, the process of retrieving information does not involve lengthy searches in a warehouse. Electronic systems make it very easy to access the records of a specific patient. A healthcare professional can view all the tests undertaken and results posted from the comfort of a consultation room, and without waiting for them to come from a warehouse. They can also determine the best course of medical action to take very fast because there is no need to generate a new medical history. Secondly, healthcare providers also enjoy the benefit of reduced risk of making the wrong diagnosis because of the availability of the medical history of any patient they are treating. It also eases referrals to specialists who can then determine treatment and other medical interventions n ecessary for a given patient based on the physicians entry on the EMR. The specialist can view the full history of a patient’s condition without necessarily consulting with all the medical caregivers who have previously attended to the patient. The overall work rate of a physician working with EMR increases because of the ease with which patient records are available. To healthcare institutions, EMR also posts several benefits. The entire institution stands the chance of increasing its overall efficiency by using EMR. In a healthcare facility, paperwork constitutes a critical component of service provision. A healthcare institution can eliminate a layer of overheads related to managing paper records simply by installing an EMR system. This cuts costs and increases the workflow rate in the entire medical institution. For smaller practices, using EMR can increase patient confidence because of the integration with the overall healthcare system. A patient can enjoy personalized s ervice with the assurance that their medical records will be accessible at any other health facility they will visit in the future. Secondly, fewer medical errors by caregivers mean fewer cases of legal action or loss of practice license. This advantage reduces further the overheads a health facility incurs related to legal suits arising from negligence or medical errors caused by poor information. This also creates the added benefit of increasing patient confidence in the institution. Another benefit health a facility derives from an EMR is that it can do away with warehouses used to store medical records in paper format. These warehouses can be quite large because of the amount of paperwork medical records tend to generate. There is a legal requirement to store paper records for at least seven years after their creation. The warehouses also need staff to maintain them. By eliminating paper records, health facilities no longer need to pay salaries of the staff involved in managing paper records. Regulators derive several benefits from EMR. For the purposes of this paper, regulators refer to state and federal authorities active in the health sector. One area where regulators find benefits from the EMR is in the matter of epidemiology. Through the data provided from the EMR, agencies involved in the protection of public health can detect the spread of diseases and other health conditions. This enables them to develop responses that inform the quality of healthcare in their jurisdiction. Similarly, the federal government is in a position to make better healthcare choices based on the data collected through the EMR. Reduction in healthcare costs makes it possible for the federal government to improve the quality and range of services offered to the public based on the benefits derived from EMR systems. In total, EMR leads to a reduced health burden because of efficient care and lower cost of care. This advantage increases the overall productivity of the workforce , and frees resources for use in other areas of the economy. Researchers are very critical in healthcare delivery. Within healthcare, there are several categories of researchers tackling various components of healthcare research. Researchers involved in healthcare issues do not only include medical researchers. There are other categories such as IT researchers and workflow research specialists. The most significant benefit researchers derive from EMR is that it makes available high quality data. Researchers with access to EMR can use very clear data in standard formats to pursue their research needs. Unlike in the past when they had to collect data from various repositories, EMR is one large data pool where researchers can collect data quickly and in highly usable formats. The integrity of the data is also very high. Researchers also enjoy the ease and speed of access to the data. They no longer need to deal with multiple authorities in order to access data. Since it is possible to aggregate electronic data, manipulating it is also very easy, which increases the range and quality of information researchers derive from EMR. It was almost impossible to remove identifying details in paper records to make it easy to use in research. However, with EMR, it is possible to get the information relating to medical histories and treatment regimes without including the personally identifiable patient information. This also reduces the anxiety patients previously felt when researchers perused their data. The final categories of stakeholders who benefit from EMR are other providers of healthcare support services such as insurance agencies and software vendors. Insurance companies are very important partners in healthcare financing. These companies use the data from EMR to calculate premiums. EMR reduces the cost of healthcare by reducing duplicate costs such as repeated medical tests when previous records are not available. In addition, EMR eliminates the time and effort pr eviously used to collect, store and retrieve medical records. This translates to reduced cost of medical insurance and increased quality of the services offered. Other stakeholders who provide support for healthcare also glean many benefits from EMR. For instance, software vendors and hardware providers in the health sector are in business because of the need to install and maintain EMR systems in health facilities. Secondly, better records make it possible for pharmaceutical companies to determine the efficacy of drugs they provide. This is important when carrying out research regarding drug resistance, and when examining potential side effects of recently introduced drugs. These records provide all round benefits for anyone who needs information to provide better services in the healthcare setting. Controversy Surrounding EMR While there are glowing benefits of using an EMR, a number of practical problems accompany the use of EMR. Physicians suffer the brunt of these problems beca use they are the primary data entry professionals in the EMR systems. The first category of problems they encounter relate to usability. Secondly, there are concerns about the overall effectiveness of EMR systems in cost savings for medical institutions. Thirdly, data security is of great concern to patients and finally, there are a number of hardware and software challenges dogging the use of EMR systems. Usability EMR systems have several documented usability problems. These problems come from the fact that there is no general standard when it comes to EMR design. Different software development firms adopt different system design standards for their systems. This results in a situation where there are numerous interfaces for EMR software developed by different companies. The difference in interface layout design is reducing the efficiency of physicians. Physicians have to learn to use different EMR systems in the different facilities where they work. For instance, a physician base d in one medical facility uses the EMR system in that facility to enter patient data. However, when that physician goes to another medical facility either as a consultant or as a supporting physician, chances are that the second facility uses a different EMR system. This makes it necessary for this physician to learn how to use several EMR systems in order to be effective in each health facility that they visit. It is normal for physicians to use several EMR systems depending on the number of healthcare facilities that they work in. This situation is reducing the quality of user experience with EMR systems from the physician’s point of view. In addition to reducing the quality of their experience, it obviously takes a lot of learning to become proficient in the use of several distinct EMR systems. Learning to use different EMR systems is making it very difficult for physicians to operate the systems as efficiently as expected. The systems tend to be complicated with different layout design, menu arrangement, naming protocols, and different data entry procedures. Another well-documented problem is system access. Physicians are suffering from â€Å"password fatigue†. In each facility a physician visits, he needs a password to access the EMR system there. In addition, each time a physician moves from the consultation room to the examination room, he must log out from the previous location and login in the new location. As if this is not enough, many facilities require physicians to change their passwords on a regular basis. Worse still, the passwords settings of some EMR systems require a combination of letters in both upper and lower case, and numbers. This makes access very difficult for physicians. Cost Savings In theory, IT increases operational efficiency, which should result in decreased overheads. Many sectors report gains in efficiency due to the adoption of IT based systems. In fact, even health facilities have seen savings and gains in eff iciency because of the adoption of IT in the procurement of medical supplies and billing. However, IT also comes with costs, which may wipe out any gain in efficiency. There is a lively debate relating to the potential of EMR to cut down healthcare costs. In large facilities, it seems that IT brings in large gains because of the historical operational inefficiencies associated with large medical facilities. Large institutions benefit from the economies of scale, which IT harnesses. However, for smaller practices, the use of EMR systems creates an additional layer of overheads. The cost of installation and maintenance of EMR for small practices can wipe out the benefits it promises. In fact, some researchers have shown that adoption of EMR by small practices can result in increased overheads . It does not always bring about a reduction in operating costs. While EMR systems bring about cost savings that accrued from management of paper records such as warehousing costs, the EMR system s also come with an additional layer of costs. There are hardware and software costs, and the cost associated with maintaining IT staff in the organization. Therefore, it is not always true for every organization that introduces EMR will see savings in their overall costs. On another front, IT systems work at their optimum once there is widespread adoption and use of the systems. The barriers physicians face while using EMR systems is reducing the overall benefits of the systems. For instance, the time it takes to enter data into the EMR is longer than the time it takes for a physician to create a paper record. The experience of a patient getting attention from a physician who is not fluent in the use of EMR systems may be worse than their experience when using the physician uses paper. Security Concerns With the expansion of interconnection of IT based communication platforms in the last two decades, information security has taken center stage as the most significant threat to IT. Individuals and corporations alike need constant assurance that their information will be safe in the long term. With EMR systems, a very large network of people can access the information stored in the system. Any physician with access to the EMR can access data relating to any patient. In addition, there are IT specialists, regulators, and insurance service providers with access to these systems. The numbers of potential people who can access the health records of an individual makes patients feel unsafe to have their PHR stored in EMR systems. That said, there is another layer of threat from cyber criminals. The motive of cyber criminals may by terrorism, criminal intent, or mischief. Whatever the case, patients are wary of the potential outcome of unauthorized access to their health records. Privacy is also a matter of concern for many patients. Different people have different views on privacy, with some regarding privacy as something very important. Other people may not attach a lot of weight to the privacy of the information they provide as long as no one uses it to harm them. EMR complicates the arrangements that previously existed, which assured patients of confidentiality of their personal information under client-doctor privilege. EMR allows anyone with access to the system to access this information. To increase information security, database management technology is advancing. Information silos are taking on data encryption to deter unauthorized access. Such a measure works well for unauthorized users, but it does not prevent leaks from those with authorization to access the EMR. Other data protection measures include the use of passwords, and tracking the users who access data in the EMR. Tracking users do not work in situations where unauthorized persons use the accounts of authorized persons to access patient information in the EMR. Password based systems lack authentication capabilities. Therefore, it is possible to gain access to a physicianâ €™s account in the EMR after obtaining the physician’s password through phising. This demonstrates that there are still serious concerns relating to privacy and information security plaguing the use of EMR systems. Software and Hardware Issues EMR software comes in various forms. The most common form of EMR software is commercial software where the medical facility buys EMR software from a vendor under a license allowing for institution-wide use. Commercial software comes with technical support and at times, the software development company provides training for staff and other EMR users to improve uptake. EMR software is useful only if the users are competent in its operations. Depending on their needs, medical institutions can choose from several commercial EMR software options. Each institution chooses the software that it feels meets its needs in the best way. Apart from commercial software, open source software is also available for facilities that cannot afford comm ercial software, or are not ready or willing to pay for commercial software. Open source software depends on volunteer software developers who keep improving the quality of the software. Usually, a central committee moderates the development of the software and releases improvements over time. Open source software can be a great place to start from because of the lower upfront obligations. That said, open source software frequently lacks dedicated support. The most common type of support available for open source software is through user forums. Through these online forums, users share experiences and potential fixes to glitches in the software. The third type of EMR software is available under the arrangement called Software as a Service (SaaS). This version refers to a system where the software development company retains all rights to the software and does not sell the software as a product to users. Rather they give users a license to use the software for a period. The software remains in the provider’s server and the users access the software on demand. The advantage of SaaS is that the developers can keep adding to the functionality of the service without the need to send copies of updates to the users. This makes SaaS a very reliable way of providing services. Difficulties associated with the use of SaaS include data management and transition to new platforms. Data storage is easier for the institution because the software development company invests in storage hence client health facilities do not need their own data silos. It also protects the medical institutions from local threats such as the crushing of servers, destruction of data silos, and local sabotage. The software development companies can afford to implement higher-level security protocols for the data in their silos. However, the issue of access is still very thorny. Storing patient data in a third-party information warehouse exposes the data to information security threats. It is a lso very difficult to move data to a new data warehouse if the storage facility is not under the control of the health institution. Other software related issues affecting the operation of EMR is data entry capabilities. The latest technologies supporting data query are still insufficient for Natural Language Processing (NLP). NLP refers to the capacity of software to aggregate data related to the same subject but expressed in different phrases. The most developed technologies in this regard utilize keyword search algorithms. Keyword based systems cannot decode contextual meanings when aggregating data. Different physicians use different expressions to refer to the similar conditions. In addition, the medical vocabulary used for similar medical conditions tend to be diverse. The main limitation that this brings about is that it makes data aggregation very difficult. It limits the usability of the data collected in the EMR. One of the ways of overcoming this challenge is by using ele ctronic data collection forms with standardized vocabulary. This option is useful for medical services such as laboratory tests, and for diagnosis. However, the conclusions from these processes cannot fit on a form-based system. A minor issue with huge consequence that also fits in this category of problems is the use of different spellings to refer to the same conditions. The spelling problems arise because of the differences in regional spelling standards, or simply wrong spelling of medical terms based on subjective mistakes. This also complicates the usefulness of EMR systems. Legal Framework for EMR The two main laws surrounding the use of an EMR is the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009. These laws define the legally accepted use of medical information and address the rights and liabilities of various stakeholders. In particular, these laws look at the parties involved in conveying health Information and seek to deter the misuse of health information. HIPAA sought to establish limits surrounding the transmission of â€Å"individually identifiable health information†. HIPAA served to reduce the risk of unauthorized information sharing by determining parties with a legal right to access medical records and the penalties for disclosing medical information. Parties with access to personalized medical information include healthcare providers, healthcare funders, and regulatory agencies. Information meant for wider audiences such as researchers, by law, cannot include individually identifiable information. The law requires the removal of all information such as names of patients and the identity of their employers before transmission. Some reviewers of the implementation of these laws felt that medical practitioners were more cautious about sharing information than these laws required . The explanation for this phenomenon is that there is an increase in the number of cases against medical practitioners. The professionals in the field feel that it is better to be stricter than required instead of dealing with a case in court. The Future of EMR It is difficult to imagine a future without EMR systems. While EMR is responsible for a new set of issues, its benefits, and potential, make EMR a necessary part of the future of medical services. The implementation of EMR led to the realization of other potential benefits that a medical facility could derive from it. These benefits outline the future of EMR. The first element is that there will be increasing pressure from healthcare institutions to have EMR systems that improve a physician’s workflow. This is indeed the first advantage that EMR promised in addition to availing the information needed to treat a patient on-demand. A physician’s workflow is a very important business element in the provision of health services. Reducing the work processes a physician undertakes to deliver healthcare, or improving the turnaround, makes physicians more efficient. In terms of resource commitment, a physician who concentrates on the highest value work makes more money for the healthcare facility than the one who handles other mundane tasks that reduce the effective high value time the physician spends waiting for the completion of processes. Future EMR will strive towards improving physician workflow. The essential element of the workflow is the need to have faster, yet safer means of accessing data from different points in the healthcare value chain. There are movements towards e-medicine where a physician is able to treat a patient using virtual contact. In the conceptualization of these systems, an experienced surgeon can supervise a surgery remotely, while specialists can render views on MRI scans and other tests from remote locations. The ability to do this without incurring travel costs will improve physician workflow leading to incr eased profitability for healthcare institutions. Secondly, EMR systems will tend towards greater integration with other electronic systems to improve efficiency. This will take place at various levels. One of the major problems bedeviling EMR is information security. The use of complex passwords is cumbersome especially if there is need to log in at different locations within the same facility. The simplicity of a password based security system explains its current widespread use, not just in EMR, but also across the entire IT industry. The problem with passwords is that there are no means of authenticating a login if a user gives a correct password, even if they are not the ones authorized to use that password. Already, there are many options available for better authentication based on biometrics. The options here include fingerprint scanning, iris scanning, facial recognition, speech pattern recognition, and hand dimension recognition (CITE). These technologies require an additio nal investment in IT infrastructure. In addition, they can only provide security if they are available at all possible access points. It is possible to implement such systems within a closed facility, but it would be very difficult to support remote login. However, with improving technologies, the standardization of security systems will make it possible for EMR systems to implement these security measures. For instance, most of the latest laptops come with a camera as a standard feature. This hardware can form the basis of a face recognition based security option for EHR. There will be an increase in the standardization of EMR systems based on consumer needs. As software developers understand user needs better, they will be a convergence of systems to make it easier for physicians to interact with different EMR systems. In part, this will reduce the current problems physicians face when they move from one facility another with different EMR systems. It is also likely that there wil l be an increasing degree of compatibility between EMR systems to reduce the problems associated with the use of different EMR systems. In the last few years, mobile web is proving to be a serious competitor to traditional computer-based access to the internet. With the advent of smart phones, EMR systems will find their way to mobile devices . Physicians will have the option of accessing EMR systems using applications on their mobile devices. EMR for mobile devices will require different software platforms from those used for computer based access. Its benefits will include round-the-clock access. Physicians will be able to attend to emergencies faster because they will not need to have access to a computer to attend to a patient remotely. Their phones will be sufficient for this role. One of the benefits some healthcare facilities are enjoying from EMR is integration with billing systems and even drug supply. This kind of integration will increase. In the near future, EMR will hav e full integration with e-commerce systems such that after treatment, a patient will be able to pay for services automatically. EMR systems will also include communication integration options reminding a patient of their annual checkups and upcoming appointments either by email or via short messaging to their phones. Patients with electronic health devices such as pace setters, electric wheelchairs, hearing aids, blood sugar monitors among others, will have real time data relating to their health status fed into the EMR automatically. Such devices, in conjunction with mobile communication devices can collect and relay data directly to the EMR. Such systems can then alert a patient to see a physician, and in cases of managed care, the caregivers would have alerts sent to them to check on their patients. These technological possibilities point to multiple futures in the use of EMR. Some of these ideas are already past the research stage, and are simply awaiting commercialization. They will improve the functionality of EMR and will improve the quality of healthcare. Works Cited Akhtar, Saeed. 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Sadbury, MA: Jones Bartlett Learning, 2010. Print. Smelcer, John B, Hal Miller-Jacobs and Lyle Kantrovich. â€Å"Usability of Electronic Medical Records.† Journal of Usability Studies (2009): 70-84. Print. Ulmer, Cheryl. Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports. Washington DC: National Academies Press, 2010. Print. This essay on Electronic Medical Records was written and submitted by user Braden Olsen to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. Electronic medical records

Friday, March 6, 2020

Impact of globalization on manufacturing in the U.S Essay Example

Impact of globalization on manufacturing in the U.S Essay Example Impact of globalization on manufacturing in the U.S Essay Impact of globalization on manufacturing in the U.S Essay Globalization owes its origin to at least the late 1980s. During this period, new nations were entering into manufacturing, which was in some logic the weakest connection in the U.S. series of science, development, manufacturing, and sale of goods and services. However, for some nations such as Japan, lower wages firstly made it possible to exploit this relative U.S. weakness. Nevertheless, Japan swiftly developed other diverse advantages articulated on improved manufacturing methods (Benjamin Perry, 2003).Impact on labor marketGlobalization stimulates extensively differing views and projections, varying from rosy portrayal of a supple, worldwide borderless labor market to awful situations of severe polarization between labor market winners as well as losers. First, let us examine globalization impact on careers (labor) and its subsequent consequences on manufacturing. With reduced trade barriers, new international market crop up as well as advanced information and communication tec hnologies, the job market was tremendously affected. Globalization has had an astonishing effect on working-class citizens in the United States, chiefly through the loss of hundreds of thousands of jobs brought about by outsourcing, with limited benefits to society (Benjamin Perry, 2003).The key motivation for the outsourcing of jobs was to cut the extremely high labor costs that are thought to diminish revenue. Employers are reluctant to hire workers due to high cost of employee benefits, competitive wages, and skyrocketing health-care premiums hence they consider outsourcing the work to be cheap (Bardhan Kroll, 2003). In essence, it is more economical for an American firm to hire a computer programmer in India who would be eager to perform the work for about one-fifth the pay of an American employee with a degree, whose starting salary would be about $50,000-$70,000 (Benjamin Perry, 2003). This leads Americans to be more uncertain about their job security since they cannot comp ete with their foreign counterparts that perform the same quantity of work for considerably less pay.Studies show that an estimated more than 2 million workers in the United States have lost their jobs in the last several years due to business closures in addition to layoffs (Bardhan Kroll, 2003), (Benjamin and Perry 2003). Whereas higher productivity and new management and hiring practices are associated with loss of jobs, a number of companies are increasingly transferring their businesses to other countries with cheap cost of wages as opposed United States. Manufacturing industry has suffered largely in terms of job losses, involving mostly blue-collar workers. It is however acknowledged that many of white-collar jobs are going to China (for manufacturing) (Benjamin and Perry 2003).In the case of working Americans, they have been negatively affected by the colossal increase in foreign trade. There has been loss of well-paying manufacturing jobs, important downward pressure on wa ges as well as increased disparity. The doubling of trade as a share of the economy over the last 25 years was accompanied by a substantial trade deficit, directly displacing several million jobs (Benjamin Perry, 2003).Majority of the jobs were in the manufacturing region, which incorporated millions of union jobs that were well paying compared with average wages (Bardhan Kroll, 2003). Within a period of five years from 2000 to 2005, there was decline as well as disappearance of more than three million manufacturing jobs. It is estimate that at least 30 percent of the decline was due to the rise in the manufactured goods trade deficit (Bardhan Kroll, 2003).With U.S. multinational corporations being occupied on both sides of the international trade, almost 50% of all U.S.-owned manufacturing production is now situated in foreign countries, thus an imperative part of the manufacturing job loss has been due to most of U.S. firms exporting back to the U.S. or producing abroad what th ey once produced locally (Benjamin Perry, 2003).The loss of manufacturing jobs as result of globalization saw wage losses for displaced workers, majority of whom never regained their former wage levels even after acquiring new employment. Globalization had also the effect of increasing world production capacity, which had had the effect of lowering the prices of traded goods, the consequence of which saw workers pay being reduced to reflect the value of goods produced (Bardhan Kroll, 2003). Employers to oppose wage increments for the manufacturing employees used the direct foreign threat.Similarly, the flow of investment in plant and equipment and technology oversaw increase in foreign productivity in sectors that used to be U.S. export strongholds, resulting in declining terms of trade and hence declining real income growth.Last but not the least, as foreign trade drove workers out of manufacturing into poorly paid service jobs; the new supply of workers competing for the same jo bs orchestrated lowering of wages of similarly skilled service workers. What does it imply? It implies that throwing the American workers into competition with production derived from low-wage countries, both those workers engaged directly in import-competing sectors as well as all employees economy-wide who have similar expertise and qualifications will have their wages squeezed. In fact, whereas trade flows with low-wage nations have increased, the distribution of income and wealth in the U.S. has grown more and more unequal (Benjamin Perry, 2003).Impact on input versus outputInternational Trade is increasingly imperative in the global economy and to the United States in particular.   During the last 15 years, global sells abroad have more than tripled and have accounted for more than a third of global economic growth. In deviation from the previous decades, when industrialized economies dictated global trade flows, there has been an increase in developing economies’ sha re of global exports by just over a quarter in the late 1990s to 41 percent by 2004 (Bardhan Kroll, 2003).Increased participation in international trade by the developing world is a crucial force behind what many refer to as â€Å"globalization†. Actually more than 50 percent of US trade presently carried out with developing countries, up from just over a third in the late 1980s.In US economy, manufacturing is the most trade-engaged sector accounting for 60% of the country’s exports and 80% of imports. Globalization has had an important impact on U.S. manufactures, as manufactured products accounts for 75 percent of worldwide trade (Bhagwati Marvin, 1994).Following vigorous intensification of both U.S. manufactured exports and imports at some stage in the mid 1990s; a noteworthy departure has taken place.   Ever since 1998, U.S. sells abroad have grown by just 3 percent per-year (Bardhan Kroll, 2003).   The country’s share of world exports fell from 13 pe rcent in 1998 to just 9 percent in 2004 – the lowly allocation dating 17 years back.   Happening correspondingly, imports grew by 8% per-year and the manufactured trade shortfall increased from -240 billion to -603 billion by 2005 (Bhagwati Marvin, 1994).Whereas a variety of the latest import surge has been as a result of the strong U.S. economy (especially since mid-2003) the truth remains that today, trade ins account for over a 35 percent of manufactured products consumed in the United States – an increase from 25 percent in 1992 and just 15% a 10 years earlier (Bhagwati Marvin, 1994).   A 66 percent of the increase in manufactured imports since 1998 originated from the developing world, and half of that has came from China alone.This rise in import penetration and loss of export competitiveness has had a significant impact on the current state manufacturing (Bhagwati Marvin, 1994).   While in general, manufacturing production has improved from the 2001 dec line, currently positioning at 6 percent above its pre-recession high, in addition to manufacturing employment increasing moderately subsequent to bottoming out earlier in 2004, the present manufacturing resurgence has developed half as fast as the recoveries following the preceding four declines (Bhagwati Marvin, 1994).Of eminent concern is the loss of market share both at home and abroad in recent years by the Unite States manufacturing. While some articulate this market share loss to be because of the inevitable bad trade policy as well as globalization, to others this serves as a pointer to the fact that   in a time of severe global competition, changes in a country’s competitiveness have much larger effects at present than they had in previous decades.Consider dollar value for instance. After sustaining stability for the better part of a decade, its value increased by 28 percent through the period running from 1996 to 2002. Dollar value increase led to imports being c ompetitive in the US market, whereas concurrently it made U.S. exports more costly in markets overseas.   It was during this period that, the rise in import penetration as well as the loss of global export share abroad was most significant.In a period of elevated international competition, US manufacturers have crucially been burdened by high structural non-production costs. Over the last decade, U.S. manufacturers have increased their productivity by over half, more than 150 percent the pace of their major trading partners.   Conversely, much of these efficiency gains have been offset by rising non-production costs at home. As per a research carried out several years ago by the NAM’s Manufacturing Institute, which compared non-production costs on U.S. manufacturers to their nine major trading competitors:The findings indicated that Corporate Taxes on U.S. manufacturers were 16% high than those of their major trading partners. Benefit costs  Ã‚   36% higher, Regulatory burden 85% higher and Litigation  Ã‚  Ã‚   250% higher. Summed up, these excessive non-production costs add 22% to the cost of manufacturing in the U.S. and put U.S. manufacturers at the same level with Germany as most expensive place to produce in the world (Benjamin Perry, 2003).   Moreover, the recent rise in natural gas prices in US has only exaggerated the problem. If US could exclude those excessive costs, it would actually be a lower-cost place to manufacturer than most of their industrialized competitors (Broda David, 2006).Outsourcing has seen the elimination of hundreds of thousands of jobs in the United States within the manufacturing industry. Outsourcing not only benefited US corporations, but also minimized the benefit to society (Broda David, 2006).To offer an anecdote to this observation that outsourcing only benefits corporations while, only minimizing the benefit to society, Tyco Corporation, recently relocated to a location in Texas.   Two of the major gr ounds for their relocation were due to the fact of lower labor costs as well as cheaper manufacturing costs (Broda David, 2006).   This was due to the comparatively close proximity to Mexico.Tyco perhaps took advantage of the great number of immigrants that move to Texas, who can work for comparatively low pay, which would facilitate raise, their bottom line. In so doing the company laid-off more than two hundred employees, some of this had been with the company for almost thirty-five years who had been making close to $22 per hour. The net effect was that these employees had to look for fresh employments, in lower-paying positions that maybe paid half as much, as well as they lost all of their seniority (Broda David, 2006).ConclusionEven though there has been decline in jobs as well as universal interest within the manufacturing sector, outsourcing has had its benefits within the United States (Mandel, 2004).   Sadly, it has been a consequence of just corporate welfare.   O utsourcing has absolutely maintained costs low because of cheap input costs, which drips downward to the end user in low-priced products.   In addition, with productivity rising from annually, corporations have been capable to raise their bottom lines while avoiding price surges (Mandel, 2004).   Regrettably, corporate profits are escalating, save for there are no new jobs being created- jobs relocated to other countries are not being replaced.If blue collar, working-class citizens as well as the jobless workers who experience no job intensification are losing out, in that case who is winning the battle?   Fine, additional productivity as well as lesser-input expenses decode to higher wealth. Businesses with their continually increasing profit limits; consumers, who experience near to the ground cost of goods.   Furthermore, with no job growth in the current economy, there is really no new job industry to lead the way in creating new jobs. Too many U.S. jobs are being outsou rced, and without the innovation of new industries, â€Å"job growth will stay sluggish, demand will eventually sag, and†¦incomes will be driven down under the continued pressure of competition from China, India, and other low-wage countries† (Mandel, 2004). However, with the innovation of new upcoming technologies there can be an explosive surge in employment and enormous potential for the economy.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Human Resources Policies and Management Research Paper

Human Resources Policies and Management - Research Paper Example The problem, however, is that most MNCs still view the two factors as competing and therefore end up sacrificing one for the other instead of using one to enhance the other. Investigations into the HR policies of American MNCs like GE have shown that most of them are still caught up between using systems and going with people (Brewster, Wood, and Brookes, 2008:329). As a result, they suppress one – most often people – and create systems that end up failing due to poor staff development in regional units. Based on past and current research, it is safe to infer that MNCs should approach glocalisation with seriousness because it is a major challenge. The process is time and labour intensive, and a majority of MNCs are still not ready to plunge in the uncertain area of replication. More studies show that MNCs should take their time to plan the whole process discretely because the concept tends to be different from the practical aspect of it. HR experts argue that while some HR policies are not fit across different regions, some are (Kaynak and Fulmer, 2013:23). If successfully replicated, they can help exploit economies of scope and scale – providing uniform platforms, increased knowledge sharing among staff, informal beliefs and lower redundancies. An example of such practices is official job orientation for new workers or salary surveys employed in determining external equity. Although they may need to be adapted to suit each culture, such policies are a replication of a particular practice if the central principles are still applied.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Russia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Russia - Essay Example The Prime Minister heads the government, which the president appoints but at the parliaments approval. The crafty use of democratization agenda in the post-Cold War world has evoked a backlash against the whole notion of the expected transition to democracy. Democratization is also in question here as the ground reality has prompted rethinking because much of the post-Soviet region appears trapped between authoritarian past and a murky future. The experts use the term of managed democracy for the Russian system of government. The rise of political authoritarianism or managed democracy is an object of fascination for the West. The geopolitical realities such as Russian oil and gas reserves make sure that these Western interests remain engaged in evolution of the Russian democracy. It is hard to conclude whether Russia is still a democracy or not. But one thing is certain that it represents a unique version of democracy which is considerably

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Merger of LINKdotNET and Mobilink

The Merger of LINKdotNET and Mobilink On daily basis we face several problems and we take certain steps or decisions to resolve those problems. Some decisions are proved to be good and useful and some result in loss however, the skill of problem solving and decision making power improves with the passage of time. Similarly in organizations, management has to take several decisions to resolve different problems in order to have smooth functionality of daily operations and above all for a continuous stream of profits. There are different models available in the literature for resolving the problems and making the decisions. This document is aimed to understand the decision making and problem solving tools and techniques. In this document identification of the problem in a renowned organization operating in Pakistan is done and analysis of the decisions taken to resolve that problem is conducted. The models used for decision making in response to the problem faced by the organization are also discussed along with the limita tions and shortcomings of those models. In the end a personal evaluation is done that explored skills gained by me personally after completing this brief research study on a particular organization (Simon, 1956). Company Overview Mobilink Infinity and LINKdotNET Mobilink is the leading telecommunication service provider operating in Pakistan. It is subsidiary of Orascom Telecom that is an Egyptian company. Mobilink is serving Pakistani market since 1994 and as per the latest report from PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority) Mobilink is a market leader with a market share of 31% (www.pta.gov.pk, 2010). Mobilink was only providing voice services to its customers before October 2008, when it launched Mobilink Infinity a WiMAX broadband service in one city Karachi. With high quality services and competitive pricing plans, Mobilink Infinity gained a subscriber base of more than 20,000 (www.mobilinkinfinity.com, 2010). Mobilink Infinity was being operated as a separate unit named Broad Band Unit. The major strength of the organization is its quality customer services which have set new benchmarks in Pakistan and set the new trends which were never practices before. Mobilinks broadband unit continued the same practice and delivered the service s with the same quality customer services, that is the reason that company was able to get a major market share just in one city (www.mobilinkinfinity.com, 2010). Another subsidiary of Orascom Telecom for providing broadband services in different countries is LINKdotNET. LINkdotNET commenced its operation in Pakistan by acquiring two already existing Internet Service Providers (ISPs) named as World Online (WOL) Telecom Limited and Dancom Online. LINKdotNET merged the resources of these two companies and by putting in more investment launched its operations officially on 02 February, 2008. LINKdotNET was offering its services in more than 130 cities in Pakistan and in two years this company raised its customer base up to 35,000. LINKdotNET provided services for both home and commercial users and was the second largest broadband service provider in Pakistan after PTCL (Pakistan Telecommunication Limited) (www.link.net.pk , 2010). The company got a tremendous response from the customers after its launch, but the poor management and lack of managerial skills the company failed to deliver the services as they promised. The result was that in the fi rst year of its operations the company gained a very bad reputation in the market and customers started to leave to the other service providers. However, in corporate sector LINKdotNET was still the major broadband service provider (www.link.net.pk , 2010). Background of the Problem To cater to the needs of the Broadband Internet market Orascom Telecom was operating two of its subsidiaries in Pakistan, one with the name of Mobilink Broadband Business Unit (BBU) which was mainly catering to the needs of WiMAX Internet users and was operating only in Karachi, and other was LINKdotNET with was operating in DSL, Dialup and Corporate Business Solutions for data and internet market with its operation in all major cities in Pakistan. Both of the companies were serving the same market, which was broadband internet market, to the users of same profile and almost same geographical regions. Both of the companies were independent and there was no coordination in any department, both of the companies had their separate departments, same target market and were treating each other as competitors, while both companies belonged to same parent company. This situation was causing different problems to the parent company such as confusion in the minds of consumer; high operational cost, and high marketing costs, diagram below will help understand the scenario of that time. Orascom Telecom Subsidiaries Source: (Author, 2010) Problem Identification By looking at the above diagram we it has been made clear the two companies were working in one market serving same kind of customer and with same organizational structure, at the time where competition was intense in the market, and due to increase in the operating costs and shrinking margins the profitability of the company was going down, and such structure was creating following problems for the organization. Presence of identical departments were creating increased human resource costs Marketing costs were high because of the separate marketing departments were targeting same customers and were virtually acting as competitors. Business operation costs were high because of separate network management, separate network procurement, and separate inventory management. Ambiguity in the mind of employees and consumers, who were confused about the status of both of subsidiaries, resulting in damage of brand in the eyes of customers. Managerial Decision Making Models Application In the below lines author will explore the current theories on different decision making models developed by management commentators and then author will explore the decision making process adopted by the management of Orascom Telecom, then this decision making process will be critically analyzed on managerial decision making models. Author will see which model was applies how the application of that model helped the management to make best possible decision regarding the problem identified earlier. Decision Making Models There are two decision making models that are widely used my managers in making their decision regarding their day to day business problems, one is rational decision making model and other is non-rationale decision making model (Bazerman Max, 1994). Rationale Model Rationale decision making is one the best known and most used approach, this model revolves around the thinking process and which is also called cognitive process, this model involves several steps which are explained below, there are several pros and cons of this model which are also described in below lines, this model focuses on problem solving where problem is already identified and clear in the minds of management (Bazerman Max, 1994). Rationale Decision Making Steps Source : (Author, 2010) As described in diagram above rationale decision making involves fives steps, the first step is to identify the problem, this step involves the careful analysis of the situation presented to the organization and then by this analysis the actual problem which is the cause of this situation is identified. Second step is to set the criteria for desired results required, this criteria is set to achieve the minimization of unwanted situation or elimination of them, this step is also called benchmarking of results (Gelatt, 1991). The thirds step is to find all possible solutions of the problem, this step involves the collection of all possible solutions to get rid of the current problem, this step is followed by the fourth step that is examining each of the decision option on the pre defined criteria of desired results. The final step is to identify the best possible solution to the problem and then apply that decision, and by doing this ration decision making process ends (John, 2001). Pros and Cons of Model This model supposes, before the application of the solution, that there is one best solution and hence adapts the perfectionist approach, more over critical evaluation of each and every option delays the decision making which some time cause the loses to business where external environment is turbulent (Graham, 1993). This model also take this assumption that every effect of every option can be predicted without having it tested in reality, and consequences and future implications of each decision related option are left on the discretion of decision maker (Simon, 1956). Rationale decision making requires the decision to be dependent upon the cognitive abilities and imagination of the decision maker, more over this model also require the extended time and information for the decision to be made (Bazerman Max, 1994). Non-Rationale Model Non-rationale models are the second widely used decision making models, in below lines author shall explore the main characteristics of these models. Non-Rationale Models Source: (Author, 2010) Satisficing Decision Making This is one the approaches adapted as non-rationale decision making, this approach aims for satisfying solution for the problem, rather than going for the most optimized approach, this approach is used when lengthy procedures of decision making like information needs, and evaluation of alternatives are to be avoided (Gelatt, 1991). Incremental Decision Making This decision making is required when problem at hand requires quick decision making, in this case managers make rather small responses to the problem and instead of completely eliminating it they reduce it to minimum level (John, 2001). Garbage-Can Decision Making This approach is used when the problem is clearly defined or the managers do not know what to do, this method uses trial and error approach and different solutions are tested on the basis of randomness, this approach is also used where there is emergency situation and management was not prepared to handle such situation (John, 2001). Approach Solution Employed by Orascom Telecom In below lines author will critically explore the decision making approach employed by Orascom Telecom the cater to the problem presented earlier, the problem faced by the organization was not urgent and turbulent in nature, rather its nature was more of strategic, for this kind of problem, rationale decision making is best to utilize, as the company had the time and information resources required to make such decision making, they logically opted for this and decision was made by using rationale decision making, in below lines we shall see that what decision was made how it was made by using said model. To explore this author will take step-by-step approach and will see that how each step was applied. Identification of Problem During the time in which both of the subsidiaries of Orascom Telecom were operating separately in the same market, management started to identify the problem that their profitability was decreasing due to increase in operating costs. At the same time the competition level in market was at its peak, prices were going down because of heavy competition and so was profit margins, the only way to increase or sustain profitability was to reduce costs. But Orascom Telecom was operating at redundant hierarchy by deploying two separate companies in the same market . In this scenario to sustain profitability was a challenge that management had face and to deal with they had no other option but to review their strategic business management in the broadband industry of Pakistan . Criteria Setting for Result Since Orascom Telecoms profitability was decreasing because of the high operating costs involved the criteria set for results was to increase profitability by reducing costs. Management had a clear understanding that business was growing at time as so was growing the market, but at the other hand competition was also increasing because of the entrance of new player in broadband internet market. So there was no chance of increasing profitability by increasing price and customer base. So the criteria set by the management to increase profitability by reducing costs was well justified and was based on rationality. List of Solutions At that time management of organization had two solutions to cater with this problem, the first one was to examine the profitability and operations of each of subsidiary and then close the operations of one subsidiary with less customer base and profitability. By doing this management can hand over one business to the other one and then get rid of unnecessary costs. The other solution that management was looking at to merge the operations of both of the subsidiaries and then form a new organization under the umbrella of their already well established GSM brand name Mobilink, since both the subsidiaries had same organizational structure and operational departments merger of both can be done without much disturbance in daily business operations. Examination of Each Solution Management of Orascom Telecom examined both of the solutions and their careful examination revealed following shortcomings and advantages of both of the solutions. The first which was to close the business of one unit and continue with the other one was not good for the overall image of the organization, this could have brought the negative messages for the consumer and could have hurt the brand image, the other short coming was the Mobilink BBU has the license of operating in WiMAX business and LINKdotNET had the license of operating in DSL and other high end technologies, and Orascom Telecom wanted to remain in both of the markets. So the closing of one operation would have resulted in loss of licenses and getting out of the business, however this solution could have reduced their operating costs and increase their profitability but with the above mentioned risks. Other solution which was merger of both of the unit into one consolidated unit was also expected to reduce costs by creating synergies and single operations at every department level by eliminating duel use of resources and duel costs, along with meeting the predefined selection criteria this solution also had certain benefits like merging both of the units and then re-launching operation with a big-bang was expected to bring a positive message to the potential customers that a large operator has merged their different operations and now they are in position to serve them even better. The other benefit that this solution could bring is the use of licenses of both of the subsidiaries and empowering the organization to use the full ground to play on. By employing this solution company could play in WiMAX market as well as DSL and other high end technology markets. Selection of Best Solution After the examination of the above mentioned solution choices, management decided to go for the second option and Mobilink BBU and LINKdotNET were merged for Mobilink Infinity in June 2009. After the merger, all relevant departments were merges and single point resources utilization and synergies with their GSM side of business were made possible, yes solution also resulted in layoffs but the number of employees losing jobs were less than the number could have been in case of selection of option one. Mobilink Infinity was launched to provide WiMAX and all other services that both of the organization were offering to both corporate and residential clients, that decision was able to achieve the desired results also came with the benefits of increased brand image, more clarity in employees and consumer perception of the company, so far it has been observed that companys business is growing and their profitability is increasing, and this decision is turning out to be successful one. Limitations of Process Employed Orascom Telecom employed the solution by opting for rationale decision making process, this decision turned out to be a successful decision but there are some limitations that needed to be taken care of and author have identified, by taking care of such limitations this decision could have been executed well and results could have been more fruitful, below author have discussed few limitations that are inherent in the decision (Bazerman Max, 1994). As rationale decision making is a lengthy process so it took a long time for management to complete this process, the evaluation of each option took more than a year and at the same time marketing of both subsidiaries were kept on hold, however the business didnt stop and they were selling to their customers but without marketing support (Gelatt, 1991). That time the competition in market was intense and there needed the full marketing support for any organization to win the market share, but the decision to hold all marketing activities for both of the subsidiaries and then taking one year to reach on any conclusion badly affected the business, the competition kept on building their brands, new comer were also aggressive that is why their business went down rapidly during the decision making process. Since this decision was made in the Egypt head quarters and same decision making process was in use to globally merge their broadband entities with their GSM entities, this factor also played its role in making this happen in a long time. The overall time taken by this decision was more than expected and suggested, that caused the business to miss some opportunities in the market that competition grabbed (Gelatt, 1991). Another shortcoming that author have observed with this methodology that this model is a step by step process and management cannot jump on to any other step without completing the previous one, even they know what is required and what is to be achieved and how it can be achieved they have to follow all the necessary procedures that again result in more time consuming. Since Orascom Telecom is a large organization, and they cannot afford their business to hold at any stage that is why they were unable to explore more options as solutions and only stick to two decision related options mentioned earlier, there could have been other option instead of closing and merging the business, but their evaluation stage would have cost them more loss in business that is why they were sticking to only two solutions to the defined problem (John, 2001). Another limitation with the model employed by Orascom Telecom was that this model does not support the creative decisions, since the result area is already defined and business managers are bounded with their rationality, they tend to seek and explore the decision that makes common sense and could be sold to management, to achieve the desired result of a problem there are always some run of the mill solution that pop-up in managers mind, and by following this rationale model, and in try to be rationale managers tend to ignore the creative ideas to problems that in one look may not make sense but after careful examination could have benefitted the organization more than the usual solutions(John, 2001). So there is a inherent limitation in rationale decision making model that is leads the manager to only stick to their rationale and make the decision that are acceptable in masses and ignore the creative options that come into mind, another reason of ignoring creative decision is that rationale model is already and lengthy process to follow and managers tend to stay away from creative process because such ideas would require them to evaluate and predict their implications, and this again will result in extended time taken in decision making and managers have the pressure to make the decision on time so that problem can be rectified in due time (Graham, 1993). How to Company Could Avoid Limitations As author mentioned above that decision making process took more than a year to get reached on, organization had to suffer their valuable opportunities that could have been exploited otherwise, and the solution to this limitation, in author point of view is that they should have employed the parallel analysis techniques, instead of deploying all the resources to one step at one time, they could have increased the number of managers working on the this problem and then ask them to parallel on each step, in this way the amount of time consumed in making decision could be reduced to few months. This could have also achieved by employing dedicated resources to this situation and realizing the fact the competitive environment in Pakistan in different from the competitive environment in Egypt and by using dedicated resources in Pakistan and by doing parallel analysis and execution of the process they could have achieved the desired results in minimum time(Graham, 1993). Another problem with the approach employed by the organization was to keep everything on hold for the period of decision making, while the external competitive environment was turbulent and competitive, their decision to hold all marketing activities for the period of transition was not effective, by doing this they lost the market opportunities and they position as leading telecom player was compromised. In order to avoid such situation they should have keep on giving marketing support to their products and by the time of reaching to any solution and actually launching the new entity formed they would have not missed the market (John, 2001). How this Module Affected My Decision Making Participation is this module has positively affected my problem solving and decision making abilities, as student of management and in daily life, on work or otherwise, we daily face different problems with different level of complexities, some problem are of critical nature and some are not that important, for some problems immediate decision making is required and for some problems we need a complex decision making for which time is also required, we also face the situations where we even dont know what the actual problem is, and all this happens on continues basis and in regular intervals. This module has transformed the way I used to look at the different situations, it has also taught me that there is a solution to every problem no matter how complex it may seem in first time, after going through this module I have learned that how a complex situation can be turned into a favorable situation by carefully analyzing it, how to find the actual problem by doing root cause analysis, and not to judge any situation on its face view. I have also learned that after finding the actual problem what approached that I can employee as road map to finding the solution to my problem, I have gone through various exercise that have taught me that how I can find solution and answer to various problem on my professional life and how I can use different decision making model on my working and then in my personal life. I have also came to know that which model of decision making and problem solving best suits the different situation, how to handle problems which are of immediate nature, how to solve problem which have long term affect, by going through this module I am confident on my decision making and problem solving abilities and I can use them in my professional and personal life. Conclusion This paper was aimed to explore the various decision making models and their applications by analyzing a real time problem case study that author have made on Pakistans leading telecom company Mobilink which is a subsidiary of one the largest telecom operators in the world Orascom Telecom. In this paper, author have examined real time problem which the organization had to face, while operating broadband industry of Pakistan and being a market leader they were running two of their subsidiaries with different names and operations but in the same market, and that dual operation was badly hitting their profitability. To cater to this problem organization then employed the rationale decision making model and after going through the process of decision making, they decided to merge the operations of both of the organization, later on author has examined the limitations in the study and then discussed the steps that can be taken to avoid such shortcomings. Later in this paper author have discussed that how participation in this module have affected his decision making and problem solving abilities and how author can use the knowledge and experience gained from this module in his personal and professional life.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Compulsory Sports Educaion Essay

Education should mean a perfect balance between imparting physical and academic education to the child. Education means all round development of personality i. e. physical, mental, aesthetic and spiritual. As children grow, they need balanced development of both the body and the mind especially up to the teens when they spend a major part of the day in school. At least one hour of sports of any kind is essential to recharge the minds of the children for better concentration. Schools are not for studies only. This narrow sense of education is to be corrected in the minds of the parents as well. Of course, sports and games would be followed by schools depending on the sports infrastructure they possess. In today’s enclosed colonies with severe crunch of playing fields, sports in schools can be extremely beneficial for children. Considering the fact that the obesity graph for children has been growing drastically since the past few years, the value of sports for children in the school cannot be underratedr. Undoubtedly, games and sports help in recreation and are very good for de-stressing, encouraging team building and also teaching them to accept defeat. Sportsmanship and team spirit displayed by the players on the field can be imbibed by the students. Their display of punctuality and self-discipline could be adopted for betterment. Moreover, exercise invigorates the mind and body and helps to keep fit. Making sports and extracurricular activities mandatory at the school enables kids to realize their own strengths and that is what schools are for. When young kids enter school they are unaware of their strengths and are still developing interest in various things. If extracurricular activities would not be compulsory at school many kids will never get a chance to try them out. Sports should be made compulsory in schools to introduce a healthy lifestyle to all the school going children. However, there should be more variety of sports and activities like swimming, tennis, track and field, weight lifting (gym), as well as competitive and noncompetitive games. Outdoor games are recreational and they ensure that children are exposed to fresh air and exercise, which they may not get at home. The TVs and computers are dragging the students away from any form of physical workout. Unfortunately, in our country the state of sports is dismal and sportspersons lack proper training and sponsorship. Most of the schools lack the area and the infrastructure for sports. The State governments, school boards and Sports Authorities of India should enact laws to make sports a compulsory subject in schools and also provide financial assistance to schools. So, schools must consider the fact that games are not just wastage of time rather they are such rare treasures that shape the future prospect of a student. So students, Play games, not only to hit, But also to be 100% fit.

Friday, January 10, 2020

A Passage to India

E. M. Forster's novel, A Passage to India, is a look into the lives of both the colonizer and the colonized. While the plight of the colonized is tragic, filled with degrading images of subjugated civilizations and noble people reduced to mere laborers, it is the colonizer, the British of India, and their rapid change from newly arrived colonist to rigid and unforgiving ruler that draws my interest. The characters constantly comment on these changes that occur to the British once they adjust to the imperialist lifestyle.In the second chapter of the novel Hamidullah, a Muslim character, remarks to his friends, â€Å"Yes, they have no choice here, that is my point. They come out intending to be gentlemen and are told it will not do. . . . I give any Englishman two years. . . . And I give any Englishwoman six months† (Forster 7). Miss Quested constantly worries about becoming this caricature of her former self and also recognizes the changes in her husband-to-be, Ronny, as he fit s into the British ruling class lifestyle.Fielding looks at the uncaring people his compatriots have become and marvels as he befriends an Indian Muslim. Is it possible that colonialism has an effect on the colonizer as well as the colonized? Forster clearly demonstrates that colonialism is not only a tragedy for the colonized, but effects a change on the colonizer as well. But how and why does this change occur? Aime Cesaire proposed that it is simply the savage nature of colonization that changes man into their most primal state (20). This does not work because there is no blatant savagery as in Heart of Darkness.Forster doesn't seem to be parading the cruelty of the colonizer. Thomas Gladwin and Ahmad Saidin suggest that the change is simply the myth of the white man as the British citizens assert their crowns of supposed natural, higher intelligence and worth (47). This does seem to be a good argument because of the superiority that the British colonists take upon themselves in the novel, sequestering themselves in the British club that no mere Indian can be a part of. However, it doesn't account for the more inquisitive and benevolent natures of Adela and Mr.Fielding and their acts and opinions toward the Indian people. In his essay â€Å"Shooting and Elephant,† George Orwell states that: When the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys. He becomes a sort of hollow, posing dummy, the conventionalized figure of a sahib. For it is the condition of his rule that he shall spend his life in trying to impress the ‘natives,' and so in every crisis he has got to do what the ‘natives' expect of him. He wears a mask and his face grows to fit. (152)Orwell suggests that the change is merely the taking on of a role and that the colonizer is an actor required to play the part of the British ruler. It is expected by the native people, and also by their fellow colonists. This expectation is shown through the comment of Hamidallah and his insistence of the inevitable change. It is expected. It is the acceptance of this role is the change that affects the characters in A Passage to India, and if this is the accepted norm, then it goes to reason that those who do not accept it will find themselves outcasts of the society they reject.This is what I intend to show by comparing the plights of Forster's characters Ronny, Adela, and Fielding, as I explore their differing approaches to this role and the effects that come of either accepting or rejecting it . The first groups of colonizers are those who accept the act of leadership whole-heartedly. They separate themselves from the population, declaring their own superiority over the masses as they build their walled compounds content to be out of sight and sound of any Indians, with the exception of their servants (of course) (Kurinan 44).They seek to make Britain in India, rather than accepting and glorifying the resident cultures. They remain strangers to it, pract ically living in a separate country they provided for themselves, yet ruling one that they remained aloof from (Eldridge 170). This is the Englishman or woman who feels that without British rule everything will fall to ruin and chaos, anarchy being the ruling class in their stead (Kurinan 33). This is also the class that Albert Memmi, author of The Colonizer and the Colonized (and a former colonized citizen himself), calls the â€Å"colonizer who accepts† (45).It is the colonizer who accepts his or her given role as ruler and god over the colonized people. Memmi supports Orwell's idea of the role they play by stating that â€Å"the colonizer must assume the opaque rigidity and imperviousness of stone. In short, he must dehumanize himself as well (xxvii). † Those who accept the role of the British administrator lose a part of themselves in the process, becoming an actor instead of a man, doing what is expected, not what is right. Forster picks up on this idea as well. R onny Healsop is the character that exemplifies the ruling class of the nineteenth century British colonizers.He fulfills the characteristics of the administrative class. He adopts the aloof and chilly manner that was characteristic, caring only about his superiority over the Indians and his evenings at the club with his own kind (Kurinan 43). He shows his callousness and robotic adherence to his role as magistrate in India in an argument with his mother. ‘We're out here to do justice and keep the peace. Theme's my sentiments. India isn't a drawing room. ‘ ‘You're sentiments are those of a god,' she said quietly, but it was his manner rather than his sentiments that annoyed her. Trying to recover his temper, he said, ‘India likes gods. ‘And Englishmen like posing as gods. ‘ ‘There's no point in all this. Here we are, and we're going to stop, and the country's got to put up with us, gods or no gods. . . .I am out here to work, mind, to hold th is wretched country by force. I'm not a missionary or a Labor Member or a vague sentimental sympathetic literary man. I'm just a servant of the Government. . . .We're not pleasant in India, and we don't intend to be pleasant. We've something more important to do' (51-52). Ronny dehumanizes himself with his constant ravings about having more important things to do in India than being pleasant to the â€Å"natives. He puts himself up as a god, only there for justice and to hold the country together by force. He sheds any ideas of sentiment and in doing so shows how such ideas are looked upon with derision by the ruling class of the colony. Adela, Ronny's intended fiancee, recognizes this loss of humanity in him from his arguments. She thinks about his manner and it upsets her that â€Å"he did rub it in that he was not in India to behave pleasantly, and derived positive satisfaction there from! . . . The traces of young-man humanitarianism sloughed† (52).What she doesn't reali ze is that Ronny is merely accepting his role as Orwell's â€Å"conventionalized figure of a sahib† and Memmi's typical colonizer: harsh and cold with no time or inclination toward sentiment. Adela Quested is troubled by this conventionalized role. She comes to India to see its wonders and to connect with its people. Her first moments of seeing Ronny are telling because they show her reluctance to take upon herself the role of the British administrative archetype. She marvels at how he has changed and how unsympathetic he is to those he rules over.This idea is something that haunts her as she continually struggles with the role she must take on if she marries Ronny and remains in India. She has a hard time reconciling the notion of the India she sees with that she must be apart of. â€Å"In front, like a shutter, fell a vision of her married life. She and Ronny would look into the club like this every evening, then drive home to dress; they would see the Lesleys and the Call enders and the Turtons and the Burtons, and invite them and be invited by them while the true India slid by unnoticed† (48).Adela does not wish to be a part of the society that Ronny is so fond of. She even goes so far as to ask an Indian about how she can avoid becoming as the other women, something that no other British woman would do. As she rejects her role as actress in the British imperial play, Adela becomes Memmi's â€Å"colonizer who refuses† (19), becoming contemptible in the sight of the English society of India. Those who did not accept this role were viewed as the enemy in the imperial point of view. Memmi points out that those who enter the colonies must accept or go home. There is no middle ground.Those who show signs of humanitarian romanticism are viewed as the worst of all dangers and are on the side of the enemy (20). Adela's thoughts are always viewed as naive and idealistic, but everyone has faith that she will fit in in time. The British laugh at h er notions of wanting to see the real India that they try to shut out every day, but they figure that she will fall in line in the end. But what happens if she doesn't? Adela's refusal to pursue charges against Aziz when she realizes her folly in accusing him of attempted molestation leaves her ostracized.She rejects the role of imperialist colonizer and must live with the consequences. Those who were once her greatest supporters, fawning over her illness and pretending to be so caring and concerned, now become her most vehement enemies. Memmi observed that those colonizers who felt their ideas were betrayed became vicious (21). As Adela found out after her acquitting remarks on Aziza's behalf, her friends turned against her, her superiors denounced her, and even Ronny left her. Adela realizes that if she doesn't choose to wear the mask of imperialism that â€Å"one belongs nowhere and becomes a public nuisance without realizing it. . .I speak of India. I am not astray in † ( 291). One key element of her statement is that she is only a nuisance in India. Memmi asserts that those who are good cannot stay in the colony (21). The best of people must leave because they cannot accept the consequences of their remaining as a colonist. This idea also shows that these changes in character are only exhibited in India. The English in England share differing opinions and ideas. They are not caught in the play as the colonists are and so it shows that a definite change exists between leaving England and acclimatizing to India.Therefore, Adela, although cast out from the imperial administrative class of , may remain unchanged and return to . The last character is that of Fielding. Fielding takes on the role of the colonizer who refuses, but he takes a different path than Adela. Instead of leaving he turns to the colonized for support. Fielding always connects with the Indians. He has no qualms about speaking to them or visiting them in their homes, even visiting Aziz when he falls ill. He doesn't frequent â€Å"the club,† because he doesn't share all of the same opinions that the ruling English colonizers do.Fielding also realizes the truth that the real India lays not in the British imperial scope, but in the Indians themselves. When Adela is expressing her desires to see the real India, Ronny asks Fielding how one sees the â€Å"real India. † Fielding's answer is â€Å"Try seeing Indians† (25). This question results in many of the people at the club talking about how they see too many Indians and too often. This comment about seeing the real India through its people, however, shows a definite sympathy with a conquered people, more than any of the other British people were willing to show at any point.Fielding takes his rejection of the imperialist nature so far as to support and defend the natives against his own people. When Aziz is accused of assault on Adela, Fielding is the first to come to his aid, forsaking his own people. He even defiles the sanctity of the club, choosing it to be his battle ground and denouncing his own people and the play that they have chosen to act in. He makes a very bold statement to the amazement of his fellow British subjects. He declares, â€Å"I believe Dr. Aziz to be innocent. . . . If he is guilty I resign from my service, and leave India. I resign from the club now† (210).He completely rejects his people in their chosen sanctuary, defiling their temple of Britishness and becoming their number one enemy. He is immediately denounced as he rejects this role of imperial aristocrat for benevolent humanitarian. He refuses the mask and doesn't just walk away from it, as Adela must eventually do, but he stomps on it. He in no way forsakes his British heritage, but he realizes that friendship is possible with the Indians, and he is willing to fight for his cause. He becomes the moral hero to the Indians, a quality that Memmi says is important to his acceptance into their confidence.But, Memmi also states that Fielding cannot completely join them because above all he is still British and therefore holds the same ideas and prejudices that he grew up with (45). That is unavoidable because, after all, Fielding is still a British citizen, something that can't be erased. In the end Fielding does turn back to his own people, marrying an English girl, but I think it is significant that he returns to England to find this girl, who is connected with Miss Quested and Mrs. Moore, the two idealistic characters in the novel. Fielding becomes more of a part of the imperial ociety with his marriage ties, but he remains free of the change that occurs in the colonies by making his match away from India. He stays free of the role of imperial actor and continues on with his notions of friendship and peace with the Indian people. I assert that Forster presented Fielding as an example of how to resist the imperial Indian machine and yet still maintain his British culture. Fielding is the most sympathetic, not wavering on his regard for the people, only realizing the differences that may lie between their personalities and cultures.When he becomes the â€Å"colonizer that refuses,† Fielding shows that resistance of the changes that come upon the colonizer is possible and that the role of imperial actor may be refused. Imperialism was a British institution for a long time. It brought British people in contact with many cultures and peoples. It also helped them to affect a great amount of change on indigenous ways of life. The images and accounts of the brutality and callousness of the Imperial administrators are legendary and will always be the most examined part of its long stretch until its fall in the twentieth century.These effects on the native cultures are important, as are the accounts of their plights, however now we can see that Imperialism and colonization didn't only affect the colonized, but that it had an effect on the colo nizer as well. Aime Cesaire stated that â€Å"colonial activity, colonial enterprise, colonial conquest, which is based on contempt for the nature and justified by that contempt, inevitable tends to change him who undertakes it† (20). Living the life of imperialism has its stamp. It can't help but have it.As George Orwell insinuated, it is a play, and the imperial citizens and administrators were actors, trying to play their parts as demi-gods with great confidence and authority (Kuinan 55). When any person did not live up to the art of performance, they either returned to England or joined in the plight of the native, being ostracized from their â€Å"people. † Forster presents a picture of this Imperial England. A Passage to India provides a perfect stage in which to watch the action play out among those who accept their role and those who rebel, whether knowingly or not.His portrayal of the characters Ronny, Adela, and Fielding show the three different types of colo nizers that Memmi observed in his own life as a suppressed â€Å"native. † Each character portrays a different situation and mind set, demonstrating the different alternatives in the colonial/imperial life. Through these characters we truly see the effects that imperialism had on not only the colonized, but also the colonizer, showing that no one is immune . A Passage to India E. M. Forster's novel, A Passage to India, is a look into the lives of both the colonizer and the colonized. While the plight of the colonized is tragic, filled with degrading images of subjugated civilizations and noble people reduced to mere laborers, it is the colonizer, the British of India, and their rapid change from newly arrived colonist to rigid and unforgiving ruler that draws my interest. The characters constantly comment on these changes that occur to the British once they adjust to the imperialist lifestyle.In the second chapter of the novel Hamidullah, a Muslim character, remarks to his friends, â€Å"Yes, they have no choice here, that is my point. They come out intending to be gentlemen and are told it will not do. . . . I give any Englishman two years. . . . And I give any Englishwoman six months† (Forster 7). Miss Quested constantly worries about becoming this caricature of her former self and also recognizes the changes in her husband-to-be, Ronny, as he fit s into the British ruling class lifestyle.Fielding looks at the uncaring people his compatriots have become and marvels as he befriends an Indian Muslim. Is it possible that colonialism has an effect on the colonizer as well as the colonized? Forster clearly demonstrates that colonialism is not only a tragedy for the colonized, but effects a change on the colonizer as well. But how and why does this change occur? Aime Cesaire proposed that it is simply the savage nature of colonization that changes man into their most primal state (20). This does not work because there is no blatant savagery as in Heart of Darkness.Forster doesn't seem to be parading the cruelty of the colonizer. Thomas Gladwin and Ahmad Saidin suggest that the change is simply the myth of the white man as the British citizens assert their crowns of supposed natural, higher intelligence and worth (47). This does seem to be a good argument because of the superiority that the British colonists take upon themselves in the novel, sequestering themselves in the British club that no mere Indian can be a part of. However, it doesn't account for the more inquisitive and benevolent natures of Adela and Mr.Fielding and their acts and opinions toward the Indian people. In his essay â€Å"Shooting and Elephant,† George Orwell states that: When the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys. He becomes a sort of hollow, posing dummy, the conventionalized figure of a sahib. For it is the condition of his rule that he shall spend his life in trying to impress the ‘natives,' and so in every crisis he has got to do what the ‘natives' expect of him. He wears a mask and his face grows to fit. (152)Orwell suggests that the change is merely the taking on of a role and that the colonizer is an actor required to play the part of the British ruler. It is expected by the native people, and also by their fellow colonists. This expectation is shown through the comment of Hamidallah and his insistence of the inevitable change. It is expected. It is the acceptance of this role is the change that affects the characters in A Passage to India, and if this is the accepted norm, then it goes to reason that those who do not accept it will find themselves outcasts of the society they reject.This is what I intend to show by comparing the plights of Forster's characters Ronny, Adela, and Fielding, as I explore their differing approaches to this role and the effects that come of either accepting or rejecting it . The first groups of colonizers are those who accept the act of leadership whole-heartedly. They separate themselves from the population, declaring their own superiority over the masses as they build their walled compounds content to be out of sight and sound of any Indians, with the exception of their servants (of course) (Kurinan 44).They seek to make Britain in India, rather than accepting and glorifying the resident cultures. They remain strangers to it, pract ically living in a separate country they provided for themselves, yet ruling one that they remained aloof from (Eldridge 170). This is the Englishman or woman who feels that without British rule everything will fall to ruin and chaos, anarchy being the ruling class in their stead (Kurinan 33). This is also the class that Albert Memmi, author of The Colonizer and the Colonized (and a former colonized citizen himself), calls the â€Å"colonizer who accepts† (45).It is the colonizer who accepts his or her given role as ruler and god over the colonized people. Memmi supports Orwell's idea of the role they play by stating that â€Å"the colonizer must assume the opaque rigidity and imperviousness of stone. In short, he must dehumanize himself as well (xxvii). † Those who accept the role of the British administrator lose a part of themselves in the process, becoming an actor instead of a man, doing what is expected, not what is right. Forster picks up on this idea as well. R onny Healsop is the character that exemplifies the ruling class of the nineteenth century British colonizers.He fulfills the characteristics of the administrative class. He adopts the aloof and chilly manner that was characteristic, caring only about his superiority over the Indians and his evenings at the club with his own kind (Kurinan 43). He shows his callousness and robotic adherence to his role as magistrate in India in an argument with his mother. ‘We're out here to do justice and keep the peace. Theme's my sentiments. India isn't a drawing room. ‘ ‘You're sentiments are those of a god,' she said quietly, but it was his manner rather than his sentiments that annoyed her. Trying to recover his temper, he said, ‘India likes gods. ‘And Englishmen like posing as gods. ‘ ‘There's no point in all this. Here we are, and we're going to stop, and the country's got to put up with us, gods or no gods. . . .I am out here to work, mind, to hold th is wretched country by force. I'm not a missionary or a Labor Member or a vague sentimental sympathetic literary man. I'm just a servant of the Government. . . .We're not pleasant in India, and we don't intend to be pleasant. We've something more important to do' (51-52). Ronny dehumanizes himself with his constant ravings about having more important things to do in India than being pleasant to the â€Å"natives. He puts himself up as a god, only there for justice and to hold the country together by force. He sheds any ideas of sentiment and in doing so shows how such ideas are looked upon with derision by the ruling class of the colony. Adela, Ronny's intended fiancee, recognizes this loss of humanity in him from his arguments. She thinks about his manner and it upsets her that â€Å"he did rub it in that he was not in India to behave pleasantly, and derived positive satisfaction there from! . . . The traces of young-man humanitarianism sloughed† (52).What she doesn't reali ze is that Ronny is merely accepting his role as Orwell's â€Å"conventionalized figure of a sahib† and Memmi's typical colonizer: harsh and cold with no time or inclination toward sentiment. Adela Quested is troubled by this conventionalized role. She comes to India to see its wonders and to connect with its people. Her first moments of seeing Ronny are telling because they show her reluctance to take upon herself the role of the British administrative archetype. She marvels at how he has changed and how unsympathetic he is to those he rules over.This idea is something that haunts her as she continually struggles with the role she must take on if she marries Ronny and remains in India. She has a hard time reconciling the notion of the India she sees with that she must be apart of. â€Å"In front, like a shutter, fell a vision of her married life. She and Ronny would look into the club like this every evening, then drive home to dress; they would see the Lesleys and the Call enders and the Turtons and the Burtons, and invite them and be invited by them while the true India slid by unnoticed† (48).Adela does not wish to be a part of the society that Ronny is so fond of. She even goes so far as to ask an Indian about how she can avoid becoming as the other women, something that no other British woman would do. As she rejects her role as actress in the British imperial play, Adela becomes Memmi's â€Å"colonizer who refuses† (19), becoming contemptible in the sight of the English society of India. Those who did not accept this role were viewed as the enemy in the imperial point of view. Memmi points out that those who enter the colonies must accept or go home. There is no middle ground.Those who show signs of humanitarian romanticism are viewed as the worst of all dangers and are on the side of the enemy (20). Adela's thoughts are always viewed as naive and idealistic, but everyone has faith that she will fit in in time. The British laugh at h er notions of wanting to see the real India that they try to shut out every day, but they figure that she will fall in line in the end. But what happens if she doesn't? Adela's refusal to pursue charges against Aziz when she realizes her folly in accusing him of attempted molestation leaves her ostracized.She rejects the role of imperialist colonizer and must live with the consequences. Those who were once her greatest supporters, fawning over her illness and pretending to be so caring and concerned, now become her most vehement enemies. Memmi observed that those colonizers who felt their ideas were betrayed became vicious (21). As Adela found out after her acquitting remarks on Aziza's behalf, her friends turned against her, her superiors denounced her, and even Ronny left her. Adela realizes that if she doesn't choose to wear the mask of imperialism that â€Å"one belongs nowhere and becomes a public nuisance without realizing it. . .I speak of India. I am not astray in † ( 291). One key element of her statement is that she is only a nuisance in India. Memmi asserts that those who are good cannot stay in the colony (21). The best of people must leave because they cannot accept the consequences of their remaining as a colonist. This idea also shows that these changes in character are only exhibited in India. The English in England share differing opinions and ideas. They are not caught in the play as the colonists are and so it shows that a definite change exists between leaving England and acclimatizing to India.Therefore, Adela, although cast out from the imperial administrative class of , may remain unchanged and return to . The last character is that of Fielding. Fielding takes on the role of the colonizer who refuses, but he takes a different path than Adela. Instead of leaving he turns to the colonized for support. Fielding always connects with the Indians. He has no qualms about speaking to them or visiting them in their homes, even visiting Aziz when he falls ill. He doesn't frequent â€Å"the club,† because he doesn't share all of the same opinions that the ruling English colonizers do.Fielding also realizes the truth that the real India lays not in the British imperial scope, but in the Indians themselves. When Adela is expressing her desires to see the real India, Ronny asks Fielding how one sees the â€Å"real India. † Fielding's answer is â€Å"Try seeing Indians† (25). This question results in many of the people at the club talking about how they see too many Indians and too often. This comment about seeing the real India through its people, however, shows a definite sympathy with a conquered people, more than any of the other British people were willing to show at any point.Fielding takes his rejection of the imperialist nature so far as to support and defend the natives against his own people. When Aziz is accused of assault on Adela, Fielding is the first to come to his aid, forsaking his own people. He even defiles the sanctity of the club, choosing it to be his battle ground and denouncing his own people and the play that they have chosen to act in. He makes a very bold statement to the amazement of his fellow British subjects. He declares, â€Å"I believe Dr. Aziz to be innocent. . . . If he is guilty I resign from my service, and leave India. I resign from the club now† (210).He completely rejects his people in their chosen sanctuary, defiling their temple of Britishness and becoming their number one enemy. He is immediately denounced as he rejects this role of imperial aristocrat for benevolent humanitarian. He refuses the mask and doesn't just walk away from it, as Adela must eventually do, but he stomps on it. He in no way forsakes his British heritage, but he realizes that friendship is possible with the Indians, and he is willing to fight for his cause. He becomes the moral hero to the Indians, a quality that Memmi says is important to his acceptance into their confidence.But, Memmi also states that Fielding cannot completely join them because above all he is still British and therefore holds the same ideas and prejudices that he grew up with (45). That is unavoidable because, after all, Fielding is still a British citizen, something that can't be erased. In the end Fielding does turn back to his own people, marrying an English girl, but I think it is significant that he returns to England to find this girl, who is connected with Miss Quested and Mrs. Moore, the two idealistic characters in the novel. Fielding becomes more of a part of the imperial ociety with his marriage ties, but he remains free of the change that occurs in the colonies by making his match away from India. He stays free of the role of imperial actor and continues on with his notions of friendship and peace with the Indian people. I assert that Forster presented Fielding as an example of how to resist the imperial Indian machine and yet still maintain his British culture. Fielding is the most sympathetic, not wavering on his regard for the people, only realizing the differences that may lie between their personalities and cultures.When he becomes the â€Å"colonizer that refuses,† Fielding shows that resistance of the changes that come upon the colonizer is possible and that the role of imperial actor may be refused. Imperialism was a British institution for a long time. It brought British people in contact with many cultures and peoples. It also helped them to affect a great amount of change on indigenous ways of life. The images and accounts of the brutality and callousness of the Imperial administrators are legendary and will always be the most examined part of its long stretch until its fall in the twentieth century.These effects on the native cultures are important, as are the accounts of their plights, however now we can see that Imperialism and colonization didn't only affect the colonized, but that it had an effect on the colo nizer as well. Aime Cesaire stated that â€Å"colonial activity, colonial enterprise, colonial conquest, which is based on contempt for the nature and justified by that contempt, inevitable tends to change him who undertakes it† (20). Living the life of imperialism has its stamp. It can't help but have it.As George Orwell insinuated, it is a play, and the imperial citizens and administrators were actors, trying to play their parts as demi-gods with great confidence and authority (Kuinan 55). When any person did not live up to the art of performance, they either returned to England or joined in the plight of the native, being ostracized from their â€Å"people. † Forster presents a picture of this Imperial England. A Passage to India provides a perfect stage in which to watch the action play out among those who accept their role and those who rebel, whether knowingly or not.His portrayal of the characters Ronny, Adela, and Fielding show the three different types of colo nizers that Memmi observed in his own life as a suppressed â€Å"native. † Each character portrays a different situation and mind set, demonstrating the different alternatives in the colonial/imperial life. Through these characters we truly see the effects that imperialism had on not only the colonized, but also the colonizer, showing that no one is immune .